Saturday, July 19, 2008
It is said, party as of the kampong so hilarious so that its(the celebration stripper to six days where every day has different meaning.
* First day, cikor-kor.
The day is initial part of preparation greets merdang merdem marked with activity to look for choirs, of a kind usual insect at subterranean. Generally its(the location below(under trees. At that day all residents go to farm to look for choirs to be made lauk food at that day.
* Second day, cikurung.
As does at first day of second day is marked with activity to look for cage in farm or rice field. Cage is animal living in wetland or rice field, usualy is made lauk by public Karo.
* Third day, ndurung.
Day third is marked with activity to look for nurung, mention for fish, in rice field or river. At that day resident one kampongs eats with lauk fish. Fish catched usually nurung mas, lele which usualy is called as sebakut, kaperas, eel.
* Fourth day, mantem or motong.
Day is one day nearing day celebration of top. At that day kampong resident cuts cow, buffalo, and pig to be made lauk.
* Fifth day, matana.
Matana mean day celebration top. At that day all residents is each other visit its(the consanquinity. Each time pays a visit all menus which have been collected semenjak day cikor-kor, cikurung, ndurung, and mantem is served. At the time of the all residents brightens up. Crop has run carefully and activity to plant paddy have also completed is executed. Center celebration usually in plaza or usualy is called as kiosk, a kind of hall place of celebration of party. Event of disitu is toned up with drum guro-guro aron where muda-mudi which have been decorated with custom clothes to do traditional dance. Celebration is not only celebrated by kampong resident but also consanquinity from outside kampong be invited adds situation increasingly glorious. At that day heaviest work is eating. Because each time pays a visit to its(the order consanquinity house is obliged to eat.
* Sixth day, nimpa.
That day is marked with activity to make cimpa, food typical of Karo, usualy is called as lepat. Cimpa its(the base goods is whole-wheat, demerara, and scar coconut. Cimpa tesebut usually besides for additional dish after eating. Incomplete likely merdang merdem without presence cimpa. For other district in Tanah Karo activity of nimpa is changed with ngerires that is event of making rires which in language indonesia called as lemang. Cimpa or lemang its(the endurance is sufficiently long, still good to eaten even have been two-day the duration. Therefore cimpa or rires suited for made [by] present for guest when return.
* Seventh day, rebu.
The day is last day from with refer to party six day befores. At the day there is no activity done. Guests has returned to its(the provenance. All populating residents in house. Event of kunjung-mengunjungi had past. Go to rice field or farm also prohibited at that day. As does meaning of rebu itself with the meaning not is each other admonish, that day is day x'self soothing after during six days celebrates. Having immeasurable impression ready to stick at heart each kampong resident. Day tomorrow has waited to return to does activity as days usually.
Empire of Haru-Karo is known to grows and grows in the some breath with empire Majapahit, Sriwijaya, Johor, Malaka and Acheh. Proven by empire of Haru have ever battled with the empires.
Empire of Identical emotion with tribe Karo,yaitu one of tribe in Nusantara. During his(its golden, empire of Haru-Karo starts Achenese of finite Besar to river Siak in Riau. Existence Haru-Karo in Acheh for certain with a few name of countryside over there coming from language Karo. For Example King Tantalum ( Now Banda Aceh), Tantalum Binjei in East Acheh, Rock Tantalum, Nature Tantalum, Tantalum Lubok, Kuta Laksmana Mahmud, Tantalum Cane, Blang Kejeren, and other. ( DPrinst, SH: 2004)
There is tribe Karo in Big Acheh which in Acheh patois called as Karee. Existence of tribe Haru-Karo in this Acheh confessed by H. Muhammad Said in its(the book " Acheh Along The Length Of Century", ( 1981). He(she emphasizes that Big Acheh aborigin is descendant alike Batak. But is not explained descendant from batak such the aborigin. Meanwhile, H. M. Zainuddin in its(the book " Tarikh Aceh and Nusantara" ( 1961) told that in Big Acheh dale is beside [by] Kerajaan Islam there are empire of batak Karo. its(the Selanju it is mentioned that aborigin or native from Ke-20 Mixed residence with tribe Batak Karo ysng in Achenese called as batak Karee. Brahma Putra, in its(the book " Karo Sepanjang Zaman" tells that last king of tribe Karo in Big Acheh is Manang Ginting Suka.
Group of karo in Acheh then changes name to become " The Lhee Reutoih" or the three hundred. Naming that way related to event of dispute between tribes Karo with Hindu tribe over there agreed on finalized with duel. Three of hundred ( 300) people tribe Karo will quarrel with four hundred ( 400) people Hindu tribe in an esplanade. This reconcilable duel and after the time/date of that is tribe Karo conceived of clan three hundred and the Hindu called as the four hundred.
Then day happened intertribal mixing of Karo with Hindu tribe and they conceived of the Jasandang. Other faction is Kaum Imam Pewet and Kaum Tok Batee which is tribe mixture pendatang, like: The Hindu, Arab, Persian, and other.
Berastagi atau Brastagi daerah yang sangat indah. Daerah itu terletak di Sumatera Utara yang berketinggian 1400 meter diatas permukaan laut. Sekitarnya berudara bersih dan sejuk karena peganungan dan hutan-hutan yang indah. Perjalanan 66 km mendaki sangat menyenangkan.
|Dari Berastagi kita menikmati pemandangan yang begitu indah ke gunung berapi Sinabung dan Sibayak. Sibayak masih tetap berkerja yang berketinggian 2000 meter dan tidak jauh dari Berastagi. Dalam janjka 3 jam bisa mendaki gunung Sibayak dan menikmati keindahan sekitarnya. Ataupan dari Berastagi3 atau 5 hari perjalalan lintas hutan.|| |
|Berastag sangat terkenal dengan kembang, sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahnya. Terutama markisa buah yang sangat terkenal di selurah Indonesia karena easanya yanh enak. Buah ini hanya terdapat di sekitar Berastagi. Sudah beberapa tahun disini diadakan " Pesta Buah " diadakan olehPesta Mejuah-juah|
|Disini masih ada hotel tua dengan tanah lapangan golf yang bagus. Dulu hotel itu sering dikunjungi oleh pegawai perkebunan Europa yang tinggal di sekitarnya.|
Piso artinya pisau, air terjun yang tajam dan jurang yang dalam di tanah Karo. Air terjun ini terdapat kira-kira 24 km dari Kabanjahe, ditepi Danau Toba dibahagian utar. Disekitarnya pemandangan yang indah dan air terjun ini kira-kira 120 meter. Dari sini dapat menikmati keindahan alam pegunungan hijau dan dibaliknya Danau Toba.
Tongging juga terletak di tepi Danau Toba di bahagian Utara dekat air terjun Sipisopiso. Dari sini kita lebih memuaskan pemandangan seluruh Danau Toba.
Di kampung Lingga masih terdapat rumah adat Batak Karo, yang atapnya runcing dari tiang dan tetap utuh. Kampung ini terletak kira-kira 4 km dari Kabanjahe dan 15 km sebelah selatan Berastagi. Beberapa diantara rumah-rumah itu lebih kurang 200 tahun.
Kabanjahe tidak jauh dari Berastagi , kira-kira 11 km. Penduduk disini kebanyakan penghasilan bertani. Sampai sekarang adat istiadat di hargai dan di dipakai dalam hidup sehari-hari.
Disini juga sama dengan kampung yang lain, dan seperti di kampung Lingga.
Danau ini terletak dikaki gunung berapi Sinabung, kira-kira 27 km dari Kabanjahe. Pegunungan disekitarnya dan air danau itu masih bersih dan jenih.
Air terjun ini banyak dikunjungi oleh parawisata lokal terletak kira-kira 51 km dari Medan.
Daerah ini terletak kira-kira 60 km dari Medan arah Berastagi di kaki gunung berapi Sibayak. Dan disini terdapat air panas yang sangat berkhasiat untuk penyakit kulit.
Batak is a tribe that originally lives in Northern part of
Dalihan Na Tolu is the principle tradition of Batak. It is a triangle bond between brothers, sisters, and brothers of the mother. In a Batak wedding ceremony dalihan na tolu of the groom and dalihan na tolu of the bride will be involved. Terre is a Batak Toba. The Batak wedding traditions, as follow, are based on Batak Toba traditions.
This phase starts with searching for a Batak woman. Batak grooms have to search among the other 451 marga, clan, for a wife since the tradition stipulates that a man may not marry a woman from his own clan. In Batak traditions, it is taboo for a woman coming initially to a man. Both being in love and decided to get married, the next step is marhusip, which is having the groom’s representative visiting the bride’s family. However, since a Batak can only marry another Batak, Steve has to be adopted by a willing Batak clan and thereby marry a Batak wife according to tradition. Steve will be adopted by Gultom family and receive Gultom as his Batak marga.
At marhusip, the groom and his Batak family (core family) will visit the bride’s family to discuss ensue between the two families to determine if everyone is in agreement with the marriage, what the dowry will be, where the wedding will be held, how many people will be invited, what the wedding will cost, and who will pay for it. Men and women are separated during these discussions, with the men making all the decisions.
Once an agreement has been achieved, the next ceremony is called marhata sinamot. Somehow this ceremony is similar to the marhusip discussion but dalihan na tolu of the groom and the bride are involved.
The main step of pre wedding is martumpol, the engagement. This ceremony takes place in a church. The groom and the bride vow their desires to get marry and promise to build a Christian family in front of the church elders and dalihan na tolu of both. After martumpol each family get together at their own place to prepare their parts for the wedding ceremony. The ceremony is called martonggo raja by the groom’s side and marria raja by the bride’s side. In a Batak wedding, families are the wedding organizers. The families will discuss about details, such as who will be raja parhata (master of ceremony), the representative at giving the gifts, the representative at receiving the gifts, the timetable, etc.
The wedding day is started with marsibuhai-buhai, having breakfast together at the bride’s. The groom will take the bride to the church for a holy matrimony. Afterwards the bride, the groom, and the families will have a Batak wedding ceremony. Typical affirmation of Batak wedding is as follow:
The wedding is attended by dalihan na tolu and neighbours of the groom and the bride.
The groom’s family gives the bride’s family Namargoar ni juhut, A head, some ribs, a tail part of a cow, a buffalo, or a pig that are arranged and cooked in Batak style. The bride’s family then gives the groom’s family dengke, some goldfish that are cooked in Batak style. These gifts are exchanged before lunch.
Somba ni adat and somba ni uhum, offerings usually money, will be given by the groom’s family to the bride’s.
At least five ulos, traditional Batak cloth like a sarong, ulos na marhadohoan (meaning ulos that is produced for a special occasion) will be given by the bride’s family to the groom’s. The newlyweds will receive at least two ulos holong (meaning ulos that is given based on love) from the parents and the families.
Paulak Une is a visiting ceremony when the groom and his core family come to hula-hula, the bride’s family, to show their honours and respects to the bride and her family in protecting the bride’s virginity. Through this tradition, Batak parents educate their children to not having sex before marriage, which also follows the teaching of Bible. If the bride is no longer a virgin, the visiting ceremony will still be completed but called paulak boru.
Maningkir Tangga is a consequent visiting of the bride’s family to the newlywed’s house. This is sort of an informal one, like a casual visiting. Its purpose is to strengthening the relationship between the groom and the parents in law, showing love of the parents to their daughter and to observing how well the groom and his family taking care their daughter.
Ulos Ragi Hotang is the Batak name given to this ceremonial mantle or shawl which is worn at a ceremony announcing the birth of a boy or at a wedding. At the wedding, the groom�s father drapes the cloth over the shoulders of the bride and groom and wishes them happiness and a large family. Woven on a backstrap loom in the Lake Toba region of Northern Sumatra, the central area has a stippled motif which represents rattan bark dyed into the cotton warp threads and gold threads woven into the inner border. The outer border (see enlargement) of floating (supplementary weft) decoration was added during the weaving. This photograph does not do justice to the beauty of this collector's piece. The dimensions are 67 inches long by 39 inches wide.
Dr. Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen was born in Nordstrand Island on , Schleswig-Holstein State, between Denmark and Germany on February 6, 1834. Supported by Rcheinische Mission Gesellschaft (RMG), in1861Nommensen sailed for Sumatra. In 1864 he was able to settle among the Toba Bataks in the valley of Silindung, Northern Sumatra. It was the beginning of a singular Christian career of outstanding self-denial and unfailing dedication. He preached the Gospel in word and deed among the Batak people of a territory still independent of Dutch colonial administration. Though in the beginning their behavior seemed strange to him in many ways, he respected their human dignity and recognized their inalienable right to their own convictions. He mastered t heir language and built bridges of trust.
Nommensen owed his outlook and convictions not only to his seminary training but also to the Lutheran revival movement in Schleswig-Holstein. Throughout his life he interpreted Christianity as "New Life," as taught by F. A. G. Tholuck (1799-1872) and A. Neander (1789-1850). Tholuck and Neander's theological and philosophical positions pervaded the teaching Nommensen received during his seminary years. In Sumatra he and his fellow missionaries explicated the New Life in every aspect of indigenous experience: daily life and order, custom, law, time, age, and rule. These key words represented the kerygmatic paradigm for their evangelistic outreach. Nommensen committed himself to see that New Life penetrated Batak life and culture.
The anthropocentric orientation of his theology led him to evangelize dialogically. He introduced instructions for baptism by posing questions about bliss, eternal life, and obedience to the triune God, rather than by starting with the creation story in Genesis and the people of Israel. His idea of an organically growing Christian life and ethos rested on unshakable trust in Christ. He led his dialogue partners to grasp the meaning of salvation, emphasizing the second coming of Christ. He communicated his theology and method to his fellow missionaries, instructing them for their communication with the Batak people: "Bear them on a priestly heart and preach the Word to them in season and out of season. Everyone who comes to you, you should look upon as being sent by the Lord, and devote as much time to him as is needed to show him the way of life." Nommensen emphasized that one must master the Batak language in order to "live and demonstrate one's life to the heathen and study their way of thinking."
Nommensen integrated the revival tradition of his early years in Germany into his daily theology. Central to his belief was the sovereignty of God, who has revealed himself in his living Word, Jesus Christ, "Lord and Savior of the world." By faith in the living Lord, Christians share in Christ's victory over sin, death, and Satan. Nommensen emphasized the Satan figure in the baptismal instructions and employed it in his teaching and preaching, thereby showing sensitivity to the supernatural sphere of life. His faith in the power of the incarnation (Phil. 2:5-11) led him to his view of human beings, who are enabled with the love of Christ to serve their fellow men and women. He taught the missionaries, "After one has come to understand the people and to be understood by them, one has to begin with the preaching of the Gospel in having a twofold work, namely to pull down the bulwark of Satan and to build up the house of truth." His conception of the church reflected his anthropological emphasis and res ulted in planting a truly "people's church" among the Batak. By example he demonstrated human solidarity in Christ. He realized this way of life by commissioning local elders and chiefs to "gossip the Gospel" in the village. This ministry of the laity reflected Nommensen's emphasis on the congregation as the gathered people of God under the Word of God. He practiced a contextual ecclesiology by using the customary law and structural elements of the people for the formation of a "people's church," as can be seen in the church constitutions of 1866 and 1881. The strong growth and coherence of the church, especially after the resistance of the traditionalists faded, tended to be accompanied by an uncritical allegiance to the customary law; sometimes it became almost the pivot of Christian living. Nevertheless, the indigenization of Batak Christianity has been regarded as "the secret of the growth and the prosperity of the Christian religion in the Batak land."
Nominensen made a decisive effort to gather the church along "three-self" principles. This approach was meant to help the church survive in case of persecution or the expulsion of European personnel. At the same time, Nommensen, in his paternalism and conservative social ethics, welcomed the colonial administration as the best way for development and progress. In 1904 he even proposed to the Dutch administration how to take possession of hitherto independent Batak territory, and how to divide the districts in the best interest of tribal boundaries.
Because of the growing success of the Batak Mission, Nommensen gained recognition and distinction in Europe. In 1893 he was made knight of the Royal Dutch Order of Orange Nassau; in 1904 the theological faculty of the University of Bonn conferred on him the honorary degree of doctor of theology. October 1911 saw two meaningful fiftieth anniversaries: the beginning of the Batak Mission (October 7, 1861) and Nommensen's ordination to the ministry (October 13, 1861). Moreover, in 1911 he was honored by the queen of Holland who conferred on him the Officer's Cross of the Order of Orange Nassau.
But Nommensen's legacy lies preeminently in Sumatra and in the Christian church among the Batak. By 1918, the year of his death, the Batak church was firmly established, with 34 pastors, 788 teacher-preachers, and 180,000 members. In addition, sixty European men and women of the Rhenish Mission served as coworkers with the Batak leadership. By virtue of their established Christian community, the Batak were ready to enter a new age. Nommensen translated Luther's Small Catechism, the New Testament in 1878, and several other works into Batak language and wrote hymns and a church order for the Batak church. By 1894 the entire Bible had been translated. Education was stressed, and many elementary schools were established in the villages. Batak mission society extended the mission's works among the people. Nommensen's impact therefore is not so much evident in a collection of writings, or with missionaries who followed his missionary methods; rather it is reflected in an indigenous Christian community that knows what it owes to his love and vision. In the early part of the twentieth century, the Batak church was the largest Protestant church in Southeast Asia. Several Batak Churches (HKBP) have also been built in USA, Europe, Australia, and several countries in Asia.
In 1954, long after the German mission society had left the island, Nommensen was remembered in the name of a new university, Nommensen University. And on the 150th anniversary of his birth, Nommensen was celebrated in a symposium about the meaning and ongoing relevance of his work for the churches in western Indonesia. This important event was sponsored in 1984 by the theological seminary of the Batak Church (HKBP).
Nommensen died on May 23, 1916. He was buried beside the graves of his wife, daughter, and other missionaries in Sigumpar Village, Toba Samosir Regency. He'd been living there since 1891 till the end of his life. Later on June 29, 1996, Pasombar Foundation restored his cemetry and bulild The Nommensen Memorial. The memorial monument is called Salib Kasih (Love's Cross) and used as an open church.
Although Nommensen has passed away, but his works live forever. He has showed what the true meaning of Love is through his faith and dedication to the Lord manifested in his works among the Batak people.
"To live or to die,
alow me to stay among this people for the expansion of your Gospel and your Kingdom. Amen!"
I've been always listening to the song entitled O Tano Batak these few days. It's been a while since the last time I visited Tanah Batak where I ever spent a part of my childhood. Listening to this song makes me longing about homeland. Spending time doing my works while listening to the song is not a bad choice at all. Instead, all memories I had before I move to Java comes in rhyme with the powerful voice of uncle Victor Hutabarat. Felt like flying to the Land of the Kings, Tano Batak. I still remember the situation there. Magnificient hills surrounding beautiful Toba Lake, large paddy fields, water buffalow with the kids joyully sitting on its back, songs sung by sunday schoold children, pine trees, the cool weather, how any halak hita (Bataknese) could forget that.
Anyway, O Tano Batak is widely regarded as one of the unofficial “national anthems” of the Batak people of North Sumatra, Indonesia. This folk song tells the story of someone who has traveled all over the world but still remembers his homeland. Batak choirs often sing it at cultural festivals. Grandpa (RIP) told me this song when I was a kid and he said that everytime the people in Tapanuli, North Sumatra officially welcomed guests, they would sing this song.
O TANO BATAK
Pencipta ; S. Dis Sitompul
O tano Batak haholonganku
Sai namasihol do au tu ho
Ndang olo modom
Ndang nok matangku sai namalungun do au
Sai naeng tu ho
O tano Batak sai naeng hutatap
Dapothononku tano hogodanganki
O tano Batak andingan sahat
Au on naeng mian di ho sambulon hi.
Molo dung binsar mataniari
Napanapuhon hauma disi
Denggan do ngolu
Si Ganup ari di namaringan di ho
O TANAH BATAK
(Terjemahan Indonesia: oleh Barita M. S)
Pencipta ; S. Dis Sitompul
O tanah Batak yang kucinta
Selalu aku rindu padamu
Tak bisa tidur, mataku tak dapat terlelap
Selalu aku ingin datang padamu.
O tanah Batak selalu ingin kupandang
Aku datangi tanah kelahiranku
O tanah batak kapan sampainya
Aku berada di kau ( disana), kerinduanku
Bila matahari sudah terbit
Yang membuat subur ladang – ladang
Sungguh baik kehidupan sehari – hari
Waktu aku ada di kau (disana)
O BATAK LAND
(English translation: Bruce Gale)
Composer ; S. Dis Sitompul
O Batak land, the land that I love
I always feel I am missing you
You know I can’t sleep, I can’t close my eyes
I just always desire to come to you
O Batak land, I want to see you
I want come to the land of my birth
O Batak land, when I arrive there
I will be there always, I miss you
Whenever the sun rises in the sky
It makes the fields just flourish and thrive
So wonderful was life in those days
That is just how it was when I was there
A Batak village, from Dwellings, Paul Oliver, 2003
The Bataks of North Sumatra were said to have practised ritual cannibalism. Marco Polo wrote in 13th century that inhabitants of that island ate their parents when they became too old for work; Raffles in the 19th century stated that for certain crimes a criminal would be eaten alive. According to a New York Times article, the eating of human flesh was always a highly formalized ritual, and the diners were picky - only outsiders, consenting old people and certain kinds of criminals were consumed.
Now the Bataks are mainly Christian: they were converted over a century ago.
“However, Batak Christianity can sometimes seem little more than nominal. You may, for instance, see the pastor beating on a drum for two days to ward off devils, or a church wedding followed by the traditional unjung ceremony, which unites clans by a ritual slaughtering of a water buffalo and a protracted communal bartering over a bride-price. The family and kin group remain the basic Batak social institutions and many aspects of their complex, pre- Christian forms of ancestor worship are still practiced”.
A Batak house, from www.travbuddy.com
The traditional, or adat-style, Batak houses can be large: up to 60 feet long and housing up to 12 families . They have distinctive saddle-backed, twin-peaked roof – like the horns of a buffalo - made from a special palm fibre and commonly anchored by long poles. But now they tend to be made from corrugated steel.
The front of the house, but where is the door? From www.travbuddy.com
Traditionally, Batak houses have no doors, but are entered by a ladder through a trapdoor in the raised floor. Inside it is dark because there are no windows!
Interior, from www.pbase.com
In some villages the houses are often built in two rows, the rumah or house facing south opposite the sopo facing north. In between is the halaman or plaza from where the grand houses can be admired.
By: Arthur Simon
The group consists of:
Marsius Sitohang (left), 40 years old, from Samosir / Medan: sulim (transverse flute) Photo: Repro Tonggo Simangunsong
Kalabius Simbolon, 51 years old, from Samosir / Pematang Siantar: first sarune etek(clarinet)
The two brothers, Marsius and Sarikawan Sitohang, as well as Janter Sagala, usually play in their own group "Sitohang Bersaudara," in Medan, and Kalabius Simbolon has his own group in Pematang Siantar. These musicians have inherited the tradition begun by Tilhang Gultom, who pioneered the "Batak Opera" (a form of popular theatre set to music).
By: Pdt Daniel Taruli Asi Harahap
JAMBAR is a real term typical of Batak. Said jambar to subject to rights or part determined for someone ( a group of people). Culture Batak mentions there are 3(tiga) type jambar. That is: the right to get animal top to slaughter ( jambar juhut), the right to talk ( jambar hata) and the right to get role or duty in public work or community ( jambar ulaon).
Per Head Batak or group of in public Batak ( hula-hula, dongan sabutuha, boru, dongan sahuta etc) hardly involves x'self as parjambar. That is: man who is having leastwise 3(tiga) rights: speaks, rights gets animal top slaughtered in event of community, and rights stands in public work or community party. So the importance of carrying out of the jambar would, so that if (there are) any people Batak which is not gets or feels trifled the problem of its(the jambar hence s(he can be fulminate big.
1. JAMBAR HATA
First of all per head in community Batak ( except children and people retired have been elderly from adat/ shade manjalo soots hariapan) confessed has rights to speak ( jambar hata). Because that is in every even meeting of community Batak per head and every kelompok/ horong must be given opportunity to speak ( mandok hata) in front of public. If because allocation of time jambar hata must be representation through kelompok/ horong ( hula-hula, dongan tubu, boru etc) hence man who referred that also must speak for kelompok/ horong
what represented it. As symbol s(he must call member of its(the group stands up together with his(its. Possible in a flash of outsider tells that event of mandok this hata hardly verbiage and inefficient.
But intrinsically jambar this hata subjects to confession that per head has the right to release its(the opinion ( read: the right to be listened) in front of public. Isn't it true this very modern and democratic things?
2. JAMBAR JUHUT
Hereinafter jambar juhut subjects to belief in rights per head to get part of animal slaughters in party. Farther. jambar this juhut is symbol that per head [is] entitled to get part of source of energy?powers ( resources) life or blessing given God. Because that is not flesh cutting ( or bone) that all important but belief in existence and rights per head. Because that is we see in even meeting of Batak is not merely result of division of the important animal but especially process assorts it. ( event of mambagi jambar). Because process division of jambar also must be done openly ( transparent) and through consultation and agreement from all party(sides which present, and direct di-fait accompli may not by host or figure someone. Jolo sineat hata asa sineat whittles. Each time fleshy cutting or juhut delivered to which [is] entitled to hence protocol ( parhata) must publicize ( manggorahon) in front of public. Hereinafter each time someone receives jambar hence s(he must return to publicizes it is again to each member of his(its that jambar ( rights) they have received.
Jambar this juhut subjects to life style shares ( sharing) a real relevant with modernity life ( democracy) and Christianity. Life resource or blessing of God may not be enjoyed alone but having to distributed fairly in a a real dialogue process transparent.
This is wrong of contribution of community Batak to public and Indonesia state. That result of its(the development and seyogia Indonesia foreign exchange should be able to also imagined as livestock to slaughter which its(the semesti assorted to all public?people fairly and transparent.
3. JAMBAR ULAON
Jambar ulaon subjects to confession of culture Batak that per head must be involveed and involved in public work. In even meeting of community Batak there is no passive audience, because all people is action partner. Per head is participant ( parsidohot) and functionary ( partohonan). From depth of its(the soul people Batak hardly longing involveed and involved in public work or community.
Basically people Batak longs has role and position in its(the community and public ( including its(the church). If s(he didn't had the role and position, hence possibility happened only two: the people this Batak will go going away or “ generates riot”. On the contrary if s(he figured or entangled, as parsidohot and parjambar and partohonan hence s(he will try shoulders and accounts the work as well as possible and by might and main his(its ( including sacrificing matter). Why men Batak so diligent and forbear staying in custom party? Because over there they have role and position!
4. JAMBAR AND CHANCE
But community Kristen-Batak now still must take heed if only there are still bearing pickings jambar with chance understanding ( sibaran, part, turpuk). Christianity clearly refuses conception about chance ( predestinasi), that is assumption that life, performance and achievement of someone have been determined before all far before s(he borns. Death of Jesus in His crucifix wood and evocation returns from between dead mens has abolished this chance. Old has elapsed because new has arrived ( II KOR 5:17). For people believes nothing that impossible because that is there is no also chance ( Luk 1:37, Kej 18:1 ). God have never planned accident but future that is full expectation for us ( Yer 29:30). Because that for us community Kristen-Batak jambar may not be interpreted as chance. That is mean understanding about jambar must be based on Firman Tuhan.
For us community Kristen-Batak jambar has new meaning: that is life symbol shares byword by Jesus. That is as volunteer Jesus has is dead in crucifix wood memecah-mecah His body and pours His blood for life and kindness of all people, hence we also must always assorts life resource or blessing which we receive to humanity.
In everyday life of we will express that source of economics energy?powers, political and social and cultural the in public and state must be assorted and distributed fairly and flattens, hotly solidarity ( kesetiakawanan).
5. ASSOCIATION AND JUSTICE
Culture Jambar is symbol PERSATUAN and KEADILAN at the same time. By giving to per head and group of what becoming its(the rights ( rights speaks, rights gets resource interior, and rights stands) justice realized and association confirmed at the time of the same. Association unfairly is grind. Justice without association is hostility. Because that: Association of Indonesia also must be understood and involved for the agenda of Social justice for all Indonesia public?people.
6. THEOLOGY JAMBAR IN CHURCH
As church which member of his(its is mostly or most all berlatar-belakang Batak, HKBP will do not willing to must realize this parjambaran culture. That basically every member of HKBP must have rights to speak ( jambar hata), rights enjoys blessing ( jambar juhut) and rights stands ( jambar ulaon). How we accomodate this jambar culture this in liturgy, federation, service, organizational and all ekspressi is having religious service and berjemaat our HKBP?
tradition of Public Batak in Nusantara has old history, reachs is far so that more or less 300 SAMARIUMS until 600 SAMARIUMS, convergent in Sumatra, Indonesia. At initial rank ( first century) Sumatra in recognizing as Swarnabumi ( gold earth) by India merchant - parallel with gold meeting here.
India merchant enthusiasm to gold causes this merchants berbaik-baik with aborigines public - Batak. From during the kesemasa, custom and India merchant culture carpeted to public Batak receiving it is easily. In a few a period, public culture Batak many diffusing culture and Hindu custom.
So now public Batak at most there is in Sumatra, especially his(its in area Tapanuli. Beside Sumatra public Batak also dwells other areas of Nusantara, especially of Pulau Jawa and other archipelago of Indonesia, Peninsula Malaysia, Singapura, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Filipina, Sulawesi etcetera.
Movement pattern of public Batak from Sumatra to other areas in Nusantara influenced by two factors. Firstly his(its, arrival of occidental colonist to Nusantara at century ke-17 and both, ‘ custom go abroad ' which is partial than public cultures Batak.
As konsekuen colonization, some public Batak becomes slave to serve sold in marketing. At century 19, sale of slave Batak is ghalib in Sumatra and Nusantara generally. More or less 300 to 600 slaves Batak is sold in Singapore and Pulau Pinang every year by Inggeris. What which interesting is this Batak slaves sold by public Batak x'self to Inggeris in Sumatra which then his(its is sold in other places.
Result than migration process of slave Batak, grows population Batak in Malaysia, especially his(its in Peninsula North area Malaysia. Diskripsi fizikal public Batak which is dark, stacked and general of kerinting can be impressed in Peninsula North so that now.
But from the angle of religious and trust, public Batak in Malaysia have been separate at all than custom tyings and trust of public Batak in Sumatra which still having the character of animistik and Javaistik. Superioriti ‘ custom ' replaced with ‘ Islam ' for public Batak in Malaysia.
its(the Natijah, life pattern and idea of public Batak in Malaysia, either in Pulau Pinang, Silver, Pahang mahupun Kelantan reflex [shall] no longer be cultural and public custom Batak of from Sumatra.
This study converges to image of cosmology Batak Sumatra, as representatif public Batak Nusantara. Public cosmology Batak in Malaysia is not other than Islam cosmologies.
Back of to development of culture Batak. According To Edwin M. Loeb in its(the book ‘ Sumatra : Its History and People', public Batak inherits tradition which in the form of adunan local culture with big religions a world of merebak to this area since first century again. Hinduism, Buddhisme, Islam, Kristianiti and Taoisme, altogether up to former Sumatra before merebak to other places in Indonesia and archipelago of other Melayu.
Presence of Hindu culture at around century firstly is caught up with arrival of religion Buddha which bersinskrit with Hinduism and local trust. Entrance of Islam at around century 8 until 13 more and more merencahkan again public religion Batak and Sumatra generally, which has
ready of bersinskrit with local elements, Hinduism and Buddhoisme. Result of his(its, borns ‘ custom', important phenomenon in life of public Batak compares epistomologi religion.
It is don't too for expressed bahawa public Batak generallyly obtains approximant all the fahaman its(the spiritual is Indian, especially of Hinduisme. Fahaman HinduBatak ( pengadunan of Hinduisme with local trust) then of merebak to other places in Indoensia.
Said Loeb, between some element of Hindu which there is in trust of Batak is idea ‘ Creator ' and ‘ creation', stratification syurga ( sky), evocation syurga ( sky), fate or position of soul as free someone pass away, animal sacrifice, and shamanism ( trans or rasuk) his(its really.
religious Fahaman of public Batak can be divide to 3 part: Cosmology and cosmogony - God world ( godhead) Resident concept of about soul. Trust about spectre, dickens and ancestors.
Stratification fahaman religion as in upper looked like to one of than fahaman Hindu. People Batak divide its(the cosmology to 3 part. Upper part is place for God and Dewa. Middle part ( world) for man and part under ( under earth) for the things them which has
death - spectre, prince of darkness, dickens etcetera.
Public Batak trusts form many Gods. highest or biggest God domiciled it is ‘ Beginning djadi sodium bolon' - initial start and extremely, or ‘ s(he having start in His x'self'. This concept has equation with concept ‘ Brahman ' or scorpion purusha Hindu.
‘ Beginning djadi sodium bolon ' be in the form of personal for public Batak and lives in syurga which highest. He also attended by attributes ‘ extremely kebal'(immortality) and ‘ all powerful' ( omnipotence), because of in the form of creator as of its(the pitch in nature is including God. In saying other of Mula djadi sodium
bolon present in all creation.
Together concept Mula djadi sodium bolon - God The Supreme Big, public Batak pragmatically of intimate with concept Debata sodium tolu ( Three Gods) or what called by Tri-Murti or Trinity in Hindu cosmology.
Three principal representing Debata sodium tolu is Batara Guru, Soripata and Mangalabulan. Batara Guru compared to Mahadewa ( Shiva) manakala Soripata compared to The Most Vishnu. Only Mangalabulan had history of birth which rather blurry and doesn't show equation with
imej-imej Hindu cosmology.
Between three pinsipal is, Batara Guru has main and high position is circle [by] public Batak, kerana His character as creator and during the same, hero culture teaching artistry and custom to this Sumatra North public.
Mangalabulan on the contrary is principal of which rather complex kerana disebalik blessing and gives or obtain cash for kindness and benefaction, Mangalabulan also does badness by request, then becomes sweetheart God and patron for pirate and thief - penjenayah generallyly.
Beside three main principal is - Debata sodium tolu, public Batak also has many debata or lower God stratified it, for example debata idup ( House God), boraspati nickel tano ( spirit bumi/tanah) and boru saniang fragon ( spirit water), Radja moget pinajungan ( doorman
syurga), Radja Guru ( catchs man soul) - its(the duty same as angel Izarail in epistomologi Islam or Yama in Hinduisme.
Debata is derivation Sanskrit, deivatha. In epistomologi Batak, debata represents God.
Public Batak, like Hindu public, receives life in tone dualiti. Kindness and badness is each other presentation of in life, with kindness becomes hunting ultimat man.
Bad principal for public Batak is Naga Padoha, principal found on level very under in hieraki three natures - iaitu below(under earth. Together Fragon Padoha is story how child of Batara Guru, Baro deak pordjar which refuse to perform [a] relationship with Mangalabulan in the sky, go down to ocean primodial ( before earth is created). If Batara Guru know this incident, s(he pass fistful [of] soil;land;ground through swallow bird put down at ocean primodial. Result of his(its happened earth. Then, created also plant, animal and haiwan. Result than the relation of child of Batara Guru with a hero from sky ( passed by Batara Guru) borns generation of man.
Fragon Padaho which its(the origin dimiciling in ocean primodial has been narrowed its(the position kerana former and development of earth from during the to during the. Kerana this narrowness, every pergerakkan of Naga Padaho results earthquake. This mythology as of run with fatalistic concept of Batak bahawa world
will fall to pieces by one a period of later, if glorious Naga Padaho free x'self than squeezings Batara Guru.
Lee Khoon Choy, in its(the book Indonesia Between Myth and Reality has genesis story a world of berbeza. According To Lee, initially there are one Gods iaitu Ompung Tuan Bubi sodium Bolon - God omnipresent and omnipotent. Ompung haves a meaning (of) ‘ great-grandparents'. During the him(her, Ompung Tuan Bubi sodium Bolon relies on one tree banyan ( wishs or wiringin), stick which break decay and fall into sea. This decay stick becomes fish and hidupan other water. Then fell again stick and created [by] insect. Falling third stick forms animal like deer, monkey, bird and
as his(its. This caught up with creation of buffalo, goat, forest pig etcetera.
Result than perkhawinan two heads new bird is created [by] iaitu Patiaraja ( boy) and Manduangmandoing ( woman) begins it birth of man than egg Manduangmandoing when implementaion of earthquake which dasyat.
Though berbeza with Loeb, genesis myth brought by Lee to show equation in dasarnyaasal suggestion of man than egg and earthquake influence ( karenah Naga Padoha).
Seen from harsh eye, this genesis story in the form of inacceptable myth of mind but properties of this myth is, s(he also in the form of rich allegory with mysticism problem, if seen from intrinsic in perpective - much the same to like war in Mahabaratha and Ramayana.
If allusion with mysticism Hindu-Buddha, Fragon padoha is not other than Kundalini dimiciling medial of man physic ( near by anus).
In epistomologi Vaishnava ( one of than Hindu stream), avatara The Most Vishnu - Krishna Paramatma lanthanum with Naga Kaliya, which finally bows to Krishna Paramatma. Intrinsically, this allegory tells feather in one's cap of Krishna Paramatma captures passion ( symbolised by naga/ular). If Fragon Padoha was Kundalini, earth is physic mansia, manakala Batara Guru is soul or debata or tondi which presents together man if created. Simbologi Naga ( Snake) in mythology Batak is universal in character. In epistomologi religions Semitic, we discover snake character is given [by] coloration hitam(jahat). Adam and Eve Dismissal story ( Eve) to earth is as result of
incitement of snake to Hawa which then his(its luring Adam with its(the mildness.
Its(the irony, public Batak believes an a period of later world will fall to pieces if Naga padoha similar rebels. But, whilst blessing and tuition Batara Guru there are still at man, whilst that is they will be able to subdue Naga Padoha and lives in harmony. Not hairanlah thinks it Batara Guru
becomes debata very popular for public Batak and Indonesia generally.
Koding, an again history of haves a notion there are a lot of element identikal between mythology Batak with Hindu. Boru deak pordjar - child of Batara Guru is Dewi Saraswati in Hinduimse. Batara Guru in comparing to Mahadewa ( Shiva) as well as with Manu - first man in earth.
Brahma is personification with character Svayambhu - him(her presentation of than their/his self.
‘ Gold world egg's where does it come from Svayambhu as Brahman and creates man and God ( tradition of Hindu), diubahsuai in mythology Batak to three egg seeds, from every the other one borns one Gods. Justeru, chicken ( manuk) what bears this egg assumed is main in dimiciling mythology spiritual
public Batak. Egg manuk ( chicken) this, in tradition Tantrik is called [by] salangram or cosmical speroid.
‘ Soul ' be element of religion primal and public custom Batak. Concept supernatural ( such) also, on the verge of not presentation of here. Dominant concept is circle [by] public Batak is tondi. According To Warneck, pre-eminent otoriti of study about public Batak, tondi is ‘ spirit' ( smooth energy), ‘ man soul', ‘ individualiti man ' which presentation of since man stayed in its(the mother womb is again. At the time this s(he determines chlid future which will be borne that.
Tondi presentation of approximant to body and sesekala leaves body. Ommission of tondi causes people to hit falling sick. Justeru, sacrifice done by someone to take care of its(the tondi that sentiasa stays in good situation . All people has tondi but power of tondi berbeza than one with an other. Only tondi main and big figures domiciled it in public to have sahala - power supernatural ( excrutiatingly or semangat/keramat). Rational to this perbezaan equal to fatalistic concept of Hindu, of opinion bahawa all accidents lived had been specified before borns again and may not be avoided. Kerana birth is in good position hence its(the tondi is also will stay in good position ( in command).
Number tondi found on someone varies than one and seven. Partly public Batak believe bahawa each and everyone only had one tondi numeral other partial manakala seven tondi for every individual.
Other concept related to tondi is begu ( spectre or dickens). Begu is tondi dead man. Not all tondi is begu . Tondi which natural without bearing with badness recognized as samaon. As of higher tread than samaon is spirit [of] or debata ( same of its(the phase with God) is varying follows its(the function and power.
Shamanism - tradition reduces soul or tondi man who have been dyeing kedalam others body ( who above the ground) what done solely for communicates with people who soul have been dyeing is tradition that is very popular in North Sumatra. Shaman ( man that is gone down tondi or ‘ the baso') composes than the two, boy and woman. Primitive batak Public of which is chummy not with shamanism ( especially his(its in archipelago of West Sumatra) bases on soothsayer ( seer - language Inggeris or ‘ kavi' - language Sanskrit). Its(the beza soothsayer with shaman, tondi ( also debata and spirit) communicates in personal with soothsayer. Soothsayer then will submit mesej smooth form
( tondi, debata and spirit) or mengubat pesakit follows order of smooth form.
Shaman also only functioning as media to enable tondi communicates with people who wish to deal with his(its. Communication ‘ tondi ' with man who is calling him is direct, berbeza with the relation of through soothsayer ( third person).
Soothsayer Batak usually boy and recognized as herbalist. Though soothsayer Batak doesn't have one systems or institution for training herbalist - group of this public becomes custodian and having responsibility degrades ritual esoterik and study ( spiritual) Hindu and local from generation to generation. As of interesting case at public deed Batak is concept sees life at second ‘ now and sini'(here and now). They believe tondi of the they need to be taken care of and taken care of as well as possiblely here ( world) and now ( now). They don't be awaiting for a period of will come to get reciprocation. This concept though may be seen from in perpective of eksistensialis, also may be seen from the aspect of mysticism.
Almost all the mistical stream ( lets religion is even a) emphasizes its(the believer to take care of life with as good as possibly. Usually, a middle course is applied, namely do not lean on last night which has elapsed and not sure morrow, but taking care of every seconds of now in tone ke'sahaja’an. Soul concept among public Batak berligar to ‘ energy ' or ‘ power'. This energy thinks it stays in harmonious situation will lead into kindness. On the contrary if it is dismayed or irate, will give ugly impression to human life and nature.
Even many getting Hinduism influence, kepercyaan of public Batak has its(the separate local element like concept tondi. Tondi public Batak may not be narrowed as aura - energy circumference which sentiasa there are circled man. Instead tondi nor may be formulated as soul which there is in man physic. Tondi is adunan some fahaman than some traditions which
then his(its forms tradition of cosmology Batak which is unique.
This is the full script Kanaga Saba as of neodymium to ‘ Culture Council ' which was later published
somewhere indium early 1999 and was subjected to editing
new Christian had an effect on among Batak Angkola and Toba after the several Christian mission sent experiences failure. Most successful missionary is IL. Nommensen is continuing its(the predecessor duty propagating Christian religion in region Tapanuli. At the time, public Batak is residing in around Tapanuli, especially Tarutung, given teaching of read writes, expertise is having worker for the man and expertise sews and housewifery for mothers.
this Training and teaching then grows is finite finally stands up elementary school and expertise school in some regions in Tapanuli. Nommensen and other religion spreader also stands is big in development two the existing hospitals, RS UMUM TARUTUNG and RS HKBP Balige, which there [are] far before Indonesia independences.
Meanwhile, development of formal education also still going on so is opened it a college so called Universitas HKBP IL. Nommensen ( UHN) the year 1954. This university became the first private university in Sumatra Utara and initially only consisted of Faculty Of Economics and Fakultas Theologia.
Tribe sub Batak Toba populating in Kabupaten Tapanuli Utara which his(its regional covering Ajibata ( abuts on Parapat), Island Samosir, Pakkat, and Sarulla. Last four years is, Sub-Province Tapanuli Utara x'self has been bloomed to become some Kabupaten namely Kabupaten Tapanuli Utara ( capital of Tarutung), Sub-Province Toba Samosir ( capital of Balige), Sub-Province Samosir ( capital of Pangururan), Sub-Province Humbang ( capital of Siborong-borong), Sub-Province Humbang Hasundutan ( capital of Dolok Sanggul).
Tribe sub Batak Karo populating majority in Kabupaten Karo with capital of Kabanjahe, but partly also spread over in Kabupaten Langkat and Deli Serdang. They living in region Kabupaten Karo frequently is conceived of Karo Gunung, temporary which in Kab. Langkat and Deli Serdang frequently is called as with Karo Langkat.
Tribe sub Batak Alas residence in region Kabupaten Aceh Tenggara, Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Population they increase paska Perang Aceh where during resistance to power of Dutch colonial, tribe Batak Toba always sends auxilary troop. After war after, they is a lot is residence in South-east Acheh region.
Tribe sub Batak Pakpak consisted of 5 sub Pakpak that is Pakpak Kelasen, Pakpak Simsim, Pakpak Boang, Pakpak Pegagan, residence in region Kabupaten Dairi which then bloomed in the year 2004 becoming two sub-provinces namely: Sub-Province Dairi ( capital of Sidikalang)dan Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat ( capital of Salak). Tribe Batak Pakpak also livings in region Parlilitan is entering region Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan and region Manduamas which is part of my Kabupaten Tapanuli TengahSu Pakpak is remaining diwalayah names x'self as Pakpak Kelasan. In number a few, tribe Pakpak also residence in region Kabupaten Aceh Singkil and Kota Subulussalam.
Tribe sub Batak Simalungun residence majority in region Kabupaten Simalungun(ibukota Pematang Siantar) but in number smaller also residence in sub-province Serdang Bedagai and Kabupaten Asahan.
Tribe sub Batak Mandailing and Angkola residence in region Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan ( capital of Padang Sidempuan) and Kabupaten Mandailing Natal ( often is shortened with Madina with capital of Penyabungan). This sub-province stood since the year 1999 after bloomed from Kabupaten Tapsel.
Meanwhile, Sub-Province Tapanuli Tengah ( capital of Sibolga)sejak formerly was not predominated by one of tribe sub batak. Population of quite a lot Batak Toba is met in this area, and so it is with Batak Angkola and Mandailing. In number small, Batak Pakpak also residence in this area especially Kota Barus. This thing is enabled by Tapanuli Tengah located in Indian Ocean edge making it as entrance and exit to do commercial relation with international world. One of famous town becoming international port reaching its(the magnificence around century 5 SM-7 SAMARIUM is Kota Barus.
The Batak people of Indonesia recorded information on genealogy, religion, divination, and magic on long strips of bark, some as long as thirty feet, which were folded accordion-style and bound between wooden covers.
The Batak people live in the north of Sumatra, in the hilly region of lake Toba. At the beginning of this century the last Batak were placed under the authority of the Netherlands. Most of them were christianized. The Batak form the largest protestant community of Asia. Nevertheless a lot of old traditions were preserved. More than 4 million people are Batak; it is one of Indonesia's largest population groups
Actually Batak is a general name for 6 groups with different cultural and linguistic characteristics, but they believe in a descent of a common ancestor. The house model you've just seen, is for instance typical for the Batak. However, all Batak have in common that they live on the growing of rice and have the same wedding system. The Batak are organized in 'margas', large family groups. The members of one marga can only marry a person of another marga. Upon her marriage the wife passes over into the husband's marga.
The Batak alphabet, or surat batak, is descended ultimately from the from Brahmi script of ancient India by way of the Pallava and Old Kawi scripts.
- Batak is a syllabic alphabet - each consonant (aksara) has an inherent vowel. Other vowels or the absence of vowels can be indicated using diacritics which appear above, below or after the consonant letter.
- Batak is traditionally written from bottom to top in vertical columns running from left to right on strips of bamboo held together with string.
Used to write:
The Batak languages of northern Sumatra - Karo Batak, Toba Batak, Dairi Batak, Simalungun/Timur, Angkola and Mandailing Batak, and occasionally Malay. In most Batak communities, only the datu (priests) are able to read and write the Batak alphabet and they use it mainly for calendars and magical texts.
There are slight variations in the letters and vowel diacritics used to write each language.
Karo Batak is an Austronesian language with about 600,000 speaks in the central and northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Vowel diacritics with ka
Dairi Batak, which is also known as Batak Toba and Batta, is an Austronesian language spoken by about 2 million people in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Vowel diacritics with ka
Dairi Batak, which is also known as Dairi, Pakpak and Pakpak Dairi, is an Austronesian language with about 1.2 million speakers in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Vowel diacritics with ka
Simalungun, which is also known as Timur and Simelungan, is an Austronesian language spoken by about 800,000 people in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Vowel diacritics with ka
Mandaling Batak or Batta is an Austronesian language with about 400,000 speakers in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Vowel diacritics with ka